Rules and Rule Markup Languages for the Semantic Web

Info about Springer LNCS 2876 Proceedings (Online)


09:15 - 10:15
Peter Chen (Louisiana State University, USA)
Invited Talk: Rules, XML, and the ER Model
10:15 - 10:30
T. Tammet and V. Kadarpik
Combining an inference engine with databases: a rule server (Abstract)
10:30 - 11:00
C. Anutariya, S. Chatvichienchai, M. Iwiahara, V. Wuwongse, and Y. Kambayashi
A Rule-Based XML Access Control Model (Abstract)
11:00 - 11:30
Coffee break
11:30 - 12:00
A. Adi, O. Etzion, D. Gilat, and G. Sharon
Inference of Reactive Rules from Dependency Models (Abstract)
12:00 - 12:30
M. Hatala and G. Richards
Value-added Metatagging: Ontology and Rule based Methods for Smarter Metadata (Abstract)
12:30 - 13:00
C.J. Matheus, M.M. Kokar, K. Baclawski, and J. Letkowski
Constructing RuleML-Based Domain Theories on top of OWL Ontologies (Abstract)
13:00 - 14:00
14:00 - 14:30
G. Yang and M. Kifer
Inheritance and Rules in Object-Oriented Semantic Web Languages (Abstract)
14:30 - 14:45
B. Spencer and S. Liu
Inference Queues for Communicating and Monitoring Declarative Information between
Web Services
14:45 - 15:00
J. Kang and J. K. Lee
Extraction of Structured Rules from Web pages and Maintenance of Mutual Consistency:
XRML Approach
15:00 - 15:30
Coffee break
15:30 - 16:30

Harold Boley (National Research Council of Canada)
Invited Talk: Object-Oriented RuleML: User-Level Roles, URI-Grounded Clauses,
and Order-Sorted Terms

16:30 - 17:00
G. Antoniou and G. Wagner
Rules and Defeasible Reasoning on the Semantic Web (Abstract)
17:00 - 17:15
C. Nakabasami
RuleML Annotation for Automatic Collection Levels on METS Metadata (Abstract)
17:15 - 17:30

Invited Talk
Object-Oriented RuleML: User-Level Roles, URI-Grounded Clauses,
and Order-Sorted Terms

Harold Boley (National Research Council of Canada)

Abstract: This talk describes an Object-Oriented extension to RuleML as a modular combination of three sublanguages. (1) User-level roles provide frame-like slot representations as unordered argument collections in atoms and complex terms. (2) URI-grounded clauses allow for `webizing' using URIs as object identifiers for facts and rules. (3) Order-sorted terms permit typed variables via Web links into taxonomies such as RDF Schema class hierarchies, thus reusing the Semantic Web's light-weight ontologies. Besides introducing the first sublanguage with the Positional-Roled (ASCII) syntax, all three sublanguages are introduced with the OO RuleML (XML) syntax. Their semantics are sketched and their implementation paths are discussed.

Combining an inference engine with databases: a rule server

Tanel Tammet, Vello Kadarpik
Tallinn Technical University,

Abstract: Complex Semantic Web applications require easy-to-use tools for data and rule storage along with query mechanisms. We describe a prototype server software RLS which is used similarly to the ordinary usage of SQL RDBMS software in application programming. The server combines first-order theorem provers with several query and rule language layers for application development in the Semantic Web context.

A Rule-Based XML Access Control Model

Chutiporn Anutariya 1 , Somchai Chatvichienchai 2 , Mizuho Iwiahara 2 , Vilas Wuwongse 3 , Yahiko Kambayashi 2

1 Computer Science Program, Shinawatra University, Pathumthani, Thailand;
2 Department of Social Informatics, Graduate School of Informatics, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan; {somchai, iwaihara, kambayashi}
3 Computer Science and Information Management Program, Asian Institute of Technology, Pathumthani, Thailand;

Abstract. Due to a widely use of XML language in various application domains, a well-established mechanism for the definition and enforcement of security controls on specific accesses to XML documents is demanded, in order to ensure that only authorized entities can perform certain actions on the protected data. The proposed rule-based, declarative approach supports definition of (possibly implicit and complex) authorization rules on particular nodes within a document as well as enforcement of multiple user-defined policies, specifying selected mechanisms to resolve conflicts or to apply default authorization. Moreover, by founded on both RDF and XDD theory, the developed approach yields a simple yet flexible and interchangeable XML access control model with well-defined declarative semantics.

Inference of Reactive Rules from Dependency Models

Asaf Adi, Opher Etzion, Dagan Gilat, Guy Sharon
IBM, Haifa Research Laboratory, Israel
{adi, opher, dagang, guysh}

Abstract. Reactive rules are rules that specify reactions to events. In some cases it is easier and more intuitive for users to define a dependency model rep-resenting an ontology. In this paper, we introduce the ADI model and its infer-ence capabilities to run-time rule execution. We introduce a case study on eT-rade and define the model building blocks exemplified by this case study. Then we show the specific rule language that is being used as the execution infra-structure. We explain the inference mechanism and its dynamic nature. The pa-per concludes with related work and a discussion about its utilization.

Value-added Metatagging: Ontology and Rule based Methods for Smarter Metadata

Marek Hatala and Griff Richards
Simon Fraser University Surrey, Canada,

Abstract. In this paper we describe an ontology and rule based system that significantly increases the productivity of those who create metadata, and the quality of the metadata they produce. The system suggests values for metadata elements using a combination of four methods: inheritance, aggregation, content based similarity and ontology-based similarity. Instead of aiming for automated metadata generation we have developed a mechanism for suggesting the most relevant values for a particular metadata field. In addition to generating metadata from standard sources such as object content and user profiles, the system benefits from considering metadata record assemblies, metadata repositories, explicit domain ontologies and inference rules as prime sources for metadata generations. In this paper we first introduce the basic features of metadata systems and provide a typology of metadata records and metadata elements. Next we analyze the source of suggested values for metadata elements and discuss four methods of metadata generation. We discuss how the operations on objects the metadata are describing affect suggested metadata values and we present decision tables for the metadata generation scheduling algorithm. Finally, we discuss the use of our system in tools developed for creating e-learning material conformant with the SCORM reference model and the IEEE LTSC LOM standard.

Constructing RuleML-Based Domain Theories on top of OWL Ontologies

Christopher J. Matheus 1 , Mitch M. Kokar 2 , Kenneth Baclawski 2 , and Jerzy Letkowski 3

1 Versatile Information Systems, Inc. Framingham, MA, USA
2 Northeastern University Boston, MA, USA,
3 Western New England College Springfield, MA, USA

Abstract. Situation Awareness involves the comprehension of the state of a col-lection of objects in an evolving environment. This not only includes an under-standing of the objects’ characteristics but also an awareness of the significant relations that hold among the objects at any point in time. Systems for estab-lishing situation awareness require a knowledge representation for these objects and relations. Traditional ontologies, as defined with a language like DAML/OWL, are commonly used for such purposes. Unfortunately, these lan-guages are insufficient for describing the conditions under which specific rela-tions might hold true, which requires the explicit representation of implications, as is provided by RuleML. This paper describes an approach to knowledge rep-resentation for situation awareness employing RuleML-based domain theories constructed over OWL ontologies, presented in the context of its implementa-tion in a Situation Awareness Assistant under development by the authors. Suggestions are also made for additions to the RuleML specification.

Inheritance and Rules in Object-Oriented Semantic Web Languages

Guizhen Yang 1 and Michael Kifer 2

1 Department of Compuber Science and Engineering University at Bu alo, Bu alo, NY 14260, USA; gzyang@CSE.Buffalo.EDU
2 Department of Computer Science Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA; kifer@CS.StonyBrook.EDU

Abstract. Rule-based and object-oriented techniques are rapidly mak- ing their way into the infrastructure for representing and reasoning about semantic information on the Web. Combining these two paradigms has been an important objective and F-logic is a widely adopted formalism that achieves this goal. However, the original F-logic was lacking the notion of instance methods | one of the most common object-oriented modeling tools. Extending F-logic with instance methods poses new, non- trivial problems. It requires a di erent kind of nonmonotonic inheritance and impacts much of the semantics of the logic. In this paper we incorpo- rate instance methods into F-logic and develop a complete model theory as well as a computation framework for the extended language.

Rules and Defeasible Reasoning on the Semantic Web

G. Antoniou 1 and G. Wagner 2

1 Institue of Computer Science, FORTH, Greece,
2 Faculty of Technology Management, Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands,

Abstract. This paper discusses some issues related to the use of rules for the Semantic Web. We argue that rule formalisms and rule-based technologies have to offer a lot for the Semantic Web. In particular, they allow a simple treatment of defeasible reasoning, which is essential for being able to capture many forms of commonsense policies and specifications.

Inference Queues for Communicating and Monitoring Declarative Information between Web Services

Bruce Spencer and Sandy Liu
National Research Council of Canada and University of New Brunswick, Canada
{Bruce.Spencer, Sandy.Liu}

We introduce the inference queue as a mechanism for communicating and transforming data in Web services choreography. The insert operation provides definite clauses to the inference queue, and the remove operation generates output that is sound, complete, fair, and irredundant. Both operations are thread safe and responsive. The inference queue can form part of a highly configurable data transformation system. Rules can also monitor for events of interest based on the occurrence of certain conditions. Our suggestion of system wide monitoring of communication is complementary to existing Web services proposals.

Extraction of Structured Rules from Web pages and Maintenance of Mutual Consistency: XRML Approach

Juyoung Kang and Jae Kyu Lee
Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, Korea
{jykang, jklee}

Abstract. Web pages provide valuable knowledge for human comprehension in text, tables, and mathematical notations. However, the extraction and mainte-nance of structured rules from the Web pages are not easy tasks. To tackle these problems, we adopt the eXtensible Rule Markup Language framework. The RIML (Rule Identification Markup Language) and RSML (Rule Structure Markup Language) are two compliant representations in XRML for this pur-pose. RIML identifies the implicit rules in the Web pages possibly using multi-ple pages to make a rule or rule group. RSML specifies the complete rule struc-ture to be processed by software agents or expert systems. In this study, we cover the natural text, tables, and implicit numeric functions in the texts. In order to fulfill the research goal, we define the necessary tags for the rule extraction and maintenance in XRML. Typical ones include tags for rule grouping, tabular rules, numeric operators, and functions. The rule acquisi-tion process consists of rule base design, rule identification with RIML, and rule structuring with RSML. The maintenance process for the revisions that may occur either in Web pages and structured rules is also described. The ap-proach is demonstrated with the shipping cost comparison on the electronic book stores.

RuleML Annotation for Automatic Collection Levels on METS Metadata

Chieko Nakabasami
Toyo University, Japan

Abstract. In this paper, we propose a rule annotation method using RuleML in the Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard, called METS. By putting rules into METS, the collection levels of digital contents can be set automatically, and their re-organization can be performed easily. Applying RuleML to the rule description is one of the promising methods for re-organizing digital contents dynamically without human effort. RuleML descriptions are implemented by inserting them into the behavior section of METS, which is prepared for defining behaviors of digital contents. A set of rules embedded into the behavior section may designate how collection levels for target digital contents are set.